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Tommaso Moro




Tommaso Moro (Thomas More) è uno di quei pensatori la cui lettura è oggi più che mai consigliabile: abbiamo infatti cominciato insieme questo nuovo percorso all'interno delle lettere dal passato, e qualche volta nelle opere del passato!- fermi nel proposito di voler dimostrare che i classici di ogni tempo hanno ancora molto da dire. "Utopia" di Tommaso Moro rientra in questa categoria, e, come i grandi scritti, affronta problemi attuali nonostante siano stati indagati in un epoca ove la coscienza di essi non era per niente chiara. Ecco cosa scrive Moro a proposito dell'eutanasia e della convivenza di religioni in quella terra chiamata 'Utopia':


Nella migliore forma di repubblica i malati incurabili sono assistiti nel miglior modo possibile. Ma se il male non solo è inguaribile, ma dà al paziente continue sofferenze allora sacerdoti e magistrati, visto che il malato è inetto a qualsiasi compito, molesto agli altri, gravoso a sé stesso, sopravvive insomma alla propria morte, lo esortano a morire liberandosi lui stesso da quella vita amara, ovvero consenta di sua volontà a farsene strappare dagli altri…sarebbe un atto religioso e santo.


Sono varie le religioni, non solo per l'isola, ma per le città ancora. Altri onorano il Sole, altri la Luna, altri alcuna de le stelle erranti. Alcuni onorano per sommo dio qualche uomo che sia stato egregio per virtù. Ma la maggior parte, i più prudenti dico, non adora alcuna di queste cose, ma pensa che vi sia una occulta, eterna, immensa e inesplicabile divinità, sopra ogni capacità umana, la quale con la virtù, non con la grandezza, si stenda per questo mondo, e questo Dio chiamano padre. Da lui riconoscono l'origine, l'aumento, i mutamenti e il fine di tutte le cose e a lui solo danno i divini onori. Gli altri tutti, benché adorino cose diverse, in questo parere concorrono, che vi sia un sommo Dio, il quale abbia creato il tutto e con sua prudenza lo conservi, e chiamatilo in loro linguaggio Mytra. Ma discordano in questo: che uno afferma che questo sommo Dio sia una cosa e alcuno un'altra. Affermano, però, che quel sommo, il qual tengono per Dio, ha il governo del tutto. Ma tutti a poco a poco si scostano da la varietà de le soperstizioni e concorrono in quella religione che con più ragioni et evidenze si pruova. E già sarebbono tutti di una religione, se non che ogni disgrazia che loro accade nel mutare la religione si pensano che gli sia mandata dal Cielo per castigo e che quel Dio, il quale vogliono abbandonare, si vendichi di questa loro empia intenzione.

Gli Utopiensi, avendo inteso che i primi abitatori di quella regione esser stati cerca la religione di pareri diversi e considerando che queste varie sette, combattendo tra loro per la religione, gli aveano dato occasione di vincerli tutti, fecero un editto che ognuno potesse tenere quella religione qual più gli aggradiva a l'animo, e s'alcuno bramava di tirare l'altro ne la sua religione, poteva con modestia e ragioni studiare a persuaderlo, ma non usare in questo alcuna violenza o ingiuria; e chi contendeva di questo importunamente era punito con l'esilio o con servitù. Fecero gli Utopiensi tale statuto non solamente per rispetto di conservare la pace, la quale con la contenzione e con l'odio si estingue, ma eziandio pensando che piacesse a Dio il culto vario e diverso e che perciò ispirasse varii riti a questo e a quello. Ma giudicarono che non fusse convenevole voler con forza e minacce sforzare alcuno a credere quello che tu credi per vero. E quantunque una di quelle loro religioni fusse vera, tuttavia volseno che fusseno persuasi i loro cittadini a quella con modestia, sperando che la verità, quando che sia, debbia rimaner vittoriosa; e che, contendendosi con arme, gli uomini ostinati puotrebbono con le loro vane superstizioni oppriinere la vera religione, come avienc che i frutti vengono affogati da le spine. Così, da tai ragioni mossi, lasciarono libero ad ognuno di credere quello che più gli piaceva. Solamente vietarono che niuno affermasse le anime morire con i corpi e che il mondo fussc governato a caso, senza previdenza divina, laonde volevano che dopo questa vita fussero puniti i vizii e premiate le virtù.

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l'eutanasia è un problema davvero difficile da affrontare: è lecito prendere spunto da un'utopia, che proprio perchè tale, è una visione del mondo che non ha niente a che fare con esso?

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